Relaciones Internacionales:

Relaciones Internacionales:

¿Como afecta la globalización económica al Estado?

 

Por: Mauricio González Pereira

Estudiante de Ciencia Política y Relaciones Internacionales

Universidad Jesuita Alberto Hurtado

 

 

La globalización, como todo proceso histórico, no presenta características homogéneas aplicables a toda sociedad o regiones por igual; tampoco existe una sola interpretación sobre los alcances de este proceso, existiendo visiones encontradas sobre sus consecuencias, ventajas y desventajas. Por lo tanto, dar respuesta a la interrogante ¿Qué es la globalización? no es una tarea fácil, pero será nuestro primer paso para poder llegar a nuestro objetivo en el presente artículo.

Ahora bien, para dar respuesta a esta interrogante, Guillermo de la Dehesa señala que la globalización es un “proceso dinámico de creciente libertad e integración mundial de los mercados de trabajo, bienes, servicios, tecnología y capitales” . Bajo esta definición podemos inferir que la globalización constituye un proceso entendido primordialmente en términos económicos, mientras que otros autores señalan que esta es “un proceso de conexión e interdependencia entre sus distintos actores – economías, gobiernos, empresas, instituciones, sociedades-, que establecen relaciones cuya influencia y extensión superan los límites tradicionales de los estados, alcanzando un nivel global.” Esta última definición amplía la percepción de este fenómeno, involucrando actores no tanto solo económicos, sino, también instituciones políticas e incluso grupos humanos organizados. Finalmente, también podemos definir la globalización como una ausencia de Estado mundial, más concretamente como una sociedad mundial sin Estado y sin gobierno: “Estamos asistiendo a la difusión de un capitalismo globalmente desorganizado, donde no existe ningún poder hegemónico ni ningún régimen internacional, ya de tipo económico ya político”.

Así, podemos plantear que la globalización es un fenómeno cuya característica principal es ser un proceso de mundialización económica, que integra a distintos actores sociales, políticos e institucionales, a través de la interconexión e interdependencia de ellos a nivel mundial. Este proceso no se puede llevar a cabo sin un crecimiento económico constante, posibilitado por el incesante avance de la tecnología, de los medios de comunicación e información y, por último, de la conectividad humana dentro del sistema internacional que ha dejado de manifiesto el surgimiento de nuevos actores.

Hoy en día, podemos observar la configuración de un escenario de crecientes oportunidades para las regiones y países, que también ha evidenciado una serie de problemáticas y desigualdades, que afectan a una parte significativa de los actores del sistema internacional, así como también a la población mundial. En otras palabras, el desarrollo de la globalización económica no beneficia a la humanidad en su conjunto, sino a algunos Estados más desarrollados.

A la vez, este creciente intercambio internacional de carácter global se manifiesta en una red de mercados financieros controlada cada vez más por el poder de las multinacionales, el que no pudo haberse consagrado sin el apoyo de las tecnologías de la comunicación y la información (TIC), generando de este modo un sistema internacional “policéntrico”, en donde diversos actores transnacionales, magnates de la globalización económica, acceden progresivamente a un mayor poder, que los Estados no son capaces de controlar. De esta forma, la influencia de las fuerzas trasnacionales en la soberanía de los Estados, ha colocado en jaque los postulados de la modernidad en los cuales este se sustentaba, pasando a una nueva etapa en donde se debe rearticular bajo un nuevo contexto para poder mantener su poder. Por consiguiente, el Estado que surge como producto de esta economía globalizada, está pasando a un segundo plano, a favor del poder económico en el que el capital no tiene domicilio establecido y los movimientos financieros están fuera del alcance y control de los gobiernos nacionales, por lo cual las políticas económicas de antaño ya no son posibles de ser aplicadas en los ámbitos nacionales.

 

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